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Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Veterinary bacteriology: information about important bacteria
Veterinary bacteriology


Species/Subspecies: Mycoplasmoides gallisepticum
Categories: Motile; notifiable diseases and bacteria
Etymology: Genus name: similar to mycoplasma (fungus shaped).
Species epithet: chicken poisoning (infecting).
Significance:  [Important]   
Alternative Species Name(s):Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Taxonomy:
Phylum
Tenericutes
Class
Mollicutes
Order
Mycoplasmoidales
Family
Mycoplasmoidaceae 
Genus
Mycoplasmoides
Type Strain: PG31 = ATCC 19610 = NCTC 10115.
Macromorphology (smell):
 
Forms small very typical umbonated colonies ("fried egg appearance"). The macro morphology can be observed in a microscope.
Micromorphology: Very small and flask-shaped. M. gallisepticum has gliding motility on surfaces.
Gram +/Gram -:G-, but is normally not gram stained because the cells will then be fragmented.
Metabolism: Facultatively anaerobic. Glucose fermenter.
Catalase/Oxidase:
Fermentation of carbohydrates: Glucose +
Spec. Char.: Lacks a cell wall.
Disease:Avian mycoplasmosis (Chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkey).
HostsDiseaseClinical picture
ChickensChronic respiratory disease (or avian mycoplasmosis).Caughing, nasal dicharge, tracheal rales, sometimes eye infection. Reduced feed consumtion, loss of body condition and reduced egg production.
TurkeysInfectious sinusitis (or avian mycoplasmosis).Same as in chickens. On additon: sinusitis and dyspnea and reduced egg production. Central nervous signs may occur in growing turkeys. Secondary bacterial infection is a common sequel, especially in turkey and may lead to high morbidity and mortality.
Ducks and geese as well as some wild bird species (pigeons and sparrows).Avian mycoplasmosis.Varies for different species: subclinical or respiratory symptoms.
Diagnostics:Cultivation and immunofluorescens, PCR.
Genome Sequence:
Acc-noStrainSize (bp)Genome
NC_004829 0 996 422  

16S rRNA Seq.:
Acc-noStrainNumber of NTOperon
M22441 Not defined 1 519 

Taxonomy/phylogeny:
 
About 10 species have been described within the genus Mycoplasmoides. M. gallisepticum is rather closely related to M. pneumoniae. See the phylogenetic tree (Fig. 36:2) where M can mean Mycoplasma, Mesomycoplasma, Metamycoplasma, Mycoplasmoides or Mycoplasmopsis.
Legislation: Avian mycoplasmosis caused by M. gallisepticum is included in OIE's B-list of major animal diseases. The disease is notifyable in Sweden
Comment:Based on whole genome sequencing, the taxonomy of mycoplasmas has recently undergone a comprehensive revision. The new taxonomy has now been introduced in VetBact, but it will still be possible to search for the alternative species names. Read more about the revised taxonomy of the mollicutes under the Term list of VetBact and see also reference 164 below.
Reference(s): No. 29, 164
Updated:2022-01-21

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New families introduced within the order Enterobacterales
Phylogenetic tree for the order <i>Enterobacteriales</i>.

The order Enterobacterales (formerly called Enterobacteriales) previously consisted of bacteria with different properties and phylogenetically, these bacteria were far apart. In order for the taxonomy to be more in line with phylogeny, some of these bacteria have, therefore, been sorted into 6 new families.

Published 2022-04-13. Read more...

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