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Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Veterinary bacteriology: information about important bacteria
Veterinary bacteriology


Species/Subspecies: Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Categories: Motile; notifiable diseases and bacteria
Etymology: Genus name: fungus shaped.
Species epithet: chicken poisoning (infecting).
Significance:  [Important]   
Taxonomy:
Phylum
Tenericutes
Class
Mollicutes
Order
Mycoplasmatales
Family
Mycoplasmataceae 
Genus
Mycoplasma
Type Strain: PG31 = ATCC 19610 = NCTC 10115.
Macromorphology (smell):
 
Forms small very typical umbonated colonies ("fried egg appearance"). The macro morphology can be observed in a microscope.
Micromorphology: Very small and flask-shaped. M. gallisepticum has gliding motility on surfaces.
Gram +/Gram -:G-, but is normally not gram stained because the cells will then be fragmented.
Metabolism: Facultatively anaerobic. Glucose fermenter.
Catalase/Oxidase:
Fermentation of carbohydrates: Glucose +
Spec. Char.: Lacks a cell wall.
Disease:Avian mycoplasmosis (Chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkey).
Hosts: Poultry
Clinical Picture: Chicken:reduced egg production. Turkey: reduced egg production and swollen paranasal sinuses.
Diagnostics:Cultivation and immunofluorescens, PCR.
Genome Sequence:
Acc-noStrainSize (bp)Genome
NC_004829 0 996 422  

16S rRNA Seq.:
Acc-noStrainNumber of NTOperon
M22441  Not defined 1 519 

Taxonomy/phylogeny:
 
About 125 species have been described within the genus Mycoplasma. M. gallisepticum is rather closely related to M. pneumoniae and these mycoplasmas (the M. pneumoniae cluster) are together with the Ureaplasma cluster and the the hemotropic mycoplasmas included in the phylogenetic pneumoniae group. See phylogenetic tree (Fig. 36:2).
Legislation: Avian mycoplasmosis caused by M. gallisepticum is included in OIE's B-list of major animal diseases. The disease is notifyable in Sweden
Comment:Note that the mycoplasmas have recently been transferred to a new phylum, Tenericutes. Mollicutes do not belong to the phylum Firmicutes any longer.
Reference(s): No. 29
Updated:2016-01-27

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