|Categories:||Causes hemolysis; spore forming; motile|
|Etymology:||Genus name: Almost a Bacillus sp.|
Species epithet: from larvae.
|Significance:||American foulbrood is common in the United States, but also occurs in Sweden, Finland and other European countries. The disease can cause significant economic losses where it is prevalent.
|Old Species Name(s):||Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae och P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens har nu sammanförts till en art.|
|Type Strain:||ATCC 9545 = CCUG 28515.|
|Macromorphology (smell):||Produces mostly greyish-white colonies with diffuse edges. However, there are strains, which form orange pigmented colonies. Some of these (genotype ERIC 3) gives a clear hemolysis zone on blood agar.|
||Spore forming and motile rods (0.5-0.8 x 2.5-5.0 µm), which have peritrichous flagella.|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G+, but difficult to gram stain.|
|Other Enzymes:||Esculinase +, tryptophanase +, urease -|
|Biochemical Tests:||Citrate -, has mixed acid fermentation (Voges-Proskauer +)|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||
|Disease:||American foulbrood of honeybees.
|Hosts:||Honeybee (Apis mellifera)|
|Clinical Picture:||Abnormally high number of dead larvae (even in closed cells). Dead larvae produce a brown viscous residue in the cell, which can be pulled out with a match to a long thread. These residues contain large amounts of bacterial spores and can have a foal smell.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||About 75 species and subspecies have been described within the genus Paenibacillus. Many of them were earlier regarded as members of the genus Bacillus.|
|Legislation:||On suspicion of American foulbrood (AFB) in Sweden, a complaint is required to the bee inspector or the provincial government by Swedish law. AFB is included in OIE's A-list of major animal diseases.|
|Comment:||Compare Melisococcus plutonius, which causes European foulbrood.|
|Reference(s):||No. 97, 128, 137|
|Link:||Amerikansk yngelröta - biologi, diagnos och bekämpning|