||Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus|
||Genus name: bunch of grape-like cocci (coccus means a grain or berry)
Species epithet: golden
Subspecies epithet: see Species epithet|
|Significance:|| [Very important]
||ATCC 12600 och 12600-U = CCUG 1800 = NCTC 8532.|
|Medium (2-3 mmin diameter) sized, opaque, white or yellow colonies. Low convex and with smooth edges. They often give a double hemolysis zone on blood agar (clear narrow inner zone, which is called α-hemolysis for Staphylococcus spp. and a broad turbid outer zone, which is called β-hemolysis for Staphylococcus spp.).
||Non-motile cocci in clusters.
|Gram +/Gram -:||G+
||Esculinase -, coagulase + (most strains), urease +.
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:
Other carbohydrates: mannose +.
||Different animal species (including man)|
|Disease (Swedish):||Mastit mm. Matförgiftning och impetigo (= svinkoppor) hos människa.
|Disease (English):||Mastitis etc. Food poisoning and impetigo in humans.|
||α-toxin (hemolysin) is a porin that causes cell death of sensitive cells, i.e. those cells that possess the receptor for α-toxin (platelets and monocytes).
β-toxin (hemolysin) is a sphingomyelinase (phospholipase).
γ-toxin (hemolysin) is also a porin, which can lyse sensitive cells.
δ-toxin (hemolysin) is a peptide composed of 26 amino acids, which acts as a biodetergent and can lyse many different types of cells.
Protein A is an outer membrane protein that binds to the Fc region of IgG molecules. Thus, the Fab regions will be exposed on the surface of the bacterium and that will prevent opsonization and phagocytosis.
Coagulase is an extracellular protein that binds to prothrombin and forms a complex (staphylothrombin), where the protease activity of thrombin will be initiated, so that fibrinogen is converted to fibrin. There is no conclusive evidence that coagulase is a virulence factor, but it is believed that the bacteria are protected against phagocytosis by causing local clots.|
Totally 16 strains have been sequenced and they have 0-3 circular plasmids.
|NC_002951 ||Stam COL ||2 809 422 ||1c +1c |
|16S rRNA Seq.:
|Acc-no||Strain||Number of NT||Operon|
||ATCC 12600T ||1 476 ||6 |
||Another subspecies has been described (Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius )
|Comment:||Streptococcus pyogenes is also causing impetigo in humans.|
||No. 16, 42, 50|