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Potassium hydroxide test

General

The purpose of the potassium hydroxide test (KOH test) is to identify gram negative bacteria. KOH dissolves the thin layer of peptidoglycan of the cell walls of gram negatives, but does not affect gram positive cell walls. Disintergration of gram negative cell walls lyses the cell and release its contents, including the DNA. The DNA will make the solution very viscous and the solution will stick to the plastic loop when touched. Gram positive cells will not be affected by KOH, because they have thicker peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall. Thus, the cells will not be lysed, the DNA not released and no viscosity will be observed.

Material

  • Microscopic slide
  • Plastic loop
  • 3% KOH

Method

  • Apply one drop of 3% KOH on a microscopic slide.
  • Use o loop to transfer a generous amount of bacteria (cultivated for 24-48 h) to the drop of KOH
  • Stir carefully
  • The solution of gram negative bacteria will be viscous and form a mucoid string within 30 sec
  • Use positive and negative controls

Positive results: The solution with the bacteria (gram negative) will be viscous

Negative results: The solution with the bacteria (gram positive) will not be viscous

Use

The purpose of the KOH test is to quickly distinguish between gram negative and gram positive bacteria as a complement to Gram staining. The test is not useful for anaerobic bacteria.

 

 

 

Updated: 2017-11-23.


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Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences