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Species/Subspecies: Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Etymology: Genus name: false unit
Species epithet: full of copper rust, therefore green.
Significance:  [Very important]   
Taxonomy:
PhylumClassOrderFamilyGenus
ProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaPseudomonadalesPseudomonadaceaePseudomonas
Type Strain: RH 815 = ATCC 10145 and 10145-U = CCUG 551, 28447 and 29297 = NCTC 10332.
Macromorphology (smell):
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Large, flat and greenish colonies (2-4 mm in diameter) with irregular edges and typical metallic luster. The color is most visible on for instance TS-agar. Sometimes, a clear hemolysis zone is obtained on blood agar. Has distinctive smell (caramel, strawberry or raspberry soda). Some strains produce a green fluorescent pigment, pyoverdine. Some strains can also produce a blue pigment, pyocyanin.
Micromorphology: Small motile rod (0.5-0.8 x 1.5-3 µm) with a monotrichous flagellum.
Gram +/Gram -:
Fig. 65:5.Gram staining of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain ATCC 27853. The field B is a partial magnification (3 times) of A. The length of the scale bar corresponds to 5 µm. Date: 2011-03-24.
G-
Metabolism: Is often classified as aerobic, but can also exploit NO3- as final electron acceptor in the respiratory chain. Should, therefore, be classified as facultatively anaerobic!
Catalase/Oxidase:+/+
Other Enzymes: Tryptophanase -
Biochemical Tests: Citrate +, methyl red -, Voges-Proskauer -.
Fermentation of carbohydrates:
D-glucoselactosemaltoseL-rhamnosesucrose
+----
L-arabinosecellobioseD-mannitolsalicintrehalose
--+--
glycerolinulinraffinoseD-sorbitolstarch
+-?--
Lactose -
Spec. Char.: Temperature optimum: 37°C, but can also grow at 42°C.
Hosts: Cattle, dog, horse, mink, poultry, sheep, reptiles etc. (including humans)
Reservoir: The environment: soil, water etc.
Disease (Swedish):Mastit, pneumoni, otit mm
Disease (English):Mastitis, pneumonia, otitis, etc.
Clinical Picture:
Virulence Factors:

P. aeruginosa produces, in addition to LPS, also exotoxins. Exotoxin A is a so-called AB toxin, where the active part (A) is a ADP-ribosyltransferase, which modify EF2 (elongation factor 2) of the host cell, which in turn inhibits protein synthesis. Exoenzyme S also has ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, but act more unspecific on several of the host cell proteins. It is believed that the function is to knock out fagocytic cells to make way for the invasion of bacteria.

Pyocyanin is a toxic pigment, which induces oxidative stress in cells by generating H2O2 and superoxide radicals. Pyoverdine is a so-called siderophore, which forms a part of the bacterial iron metabolism.

P. aeruginosa has adhesins och invasins. May form a capsule and thrives in biofilms.

Genome Sequence:
Acc-noStrainSize (bp)Genome
NC_002516 PAO1 6 264 403 1c + 0 

16S rRNA Seq.:
Acc-noStrainNumber of NTOperon
Z76651 (T) 1491 

Taxonomy/phylogeny:
Comment:Opportunist, which can be isolated from the environment (soil and water). Resistant to many antibiotics. Produce the colour pigments pyocyanin and pyoverdine (see Virulence factors).
Updated:2015-10-07
 

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Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences