|Species/Subspecies:||Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica|
|Categories:||Zoonotic; notifiable diseases and bacteria|
|Etymology:||Genus name: named after the American bacteriologist Edward Francis, who has studied tularemia.|
Species epithet: refers to Tulare county in California, where the disease was first described in rodents in year 1912.
Subspecies epithet: may be found in all arctic regions.
|Significance:||Is predominantly found in Asia and Europe, but occasionally also in North America. This subspecies is less virulent than subsp. tularensis.
|Type Strain:||GIEM 503.|
|Micromorphology:||Coccoid or short nonmotile rods.|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G-|
|Other Enzymes:||Tryptophanase - (= indole -), ureas -.|
|Spec. Char.:||Facultatively intracellular. May penetrate intact skin.|
|Vector:||Mosquitoes and ticks|
|Disease:||A mild form of tularemia, which is a zoonosis
|Virulence Factors:||The capsule can be a virulence factor.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||Six species have been described within genus Francisella and this genus is related to Coxiella spp. and Legionella spp.|
|Legislation:||Tularemia is notifyable in Sweden. Francisella tularensis belongs to category A as a potential bioterrorism agent according to NIAID.|
|Comment:||Common in Sweden. The subspecies holarctica is less virulent than the subspecies tularensis.|