Veterinary bacteriology: information about important bacteria
|Categories:||Zoonotic; motile; notifiable diseases and bacteria|
|Etymology:||Genus name: named after the American bacteriologist W.H. Burkholder.|
Species epithet: refers to the disease (glanders, which in latin is "malleus").
|Significance:||Glanders has been globally distributed, but is now extinct in most developed countries. Sporadic cases occur in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, India, Pakistan, China, Central and South America. Rods is considered to be endemic in Mongolia.
|Alternative Species Name(s):||Pseudomonas mallei|
|Type Strain:||NBL 7 = ATCC 23344 = NCTC 12938.|
|Macromorphology (smell):||Grey translucent colonies without smell or pigments. Does not give hemolysis on blood agar.|
|Micromorphology:||Small coccoid and nonmotile rods (0.5-1 x 1.5-3 µm) with rounded ends and apperaring in pair or bundles. B. mallei lacks flagella in contrast to other members of genus Burkholderia. However, this bacterium can move inside a host cell by actin-based motility.|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G-|
|Metabolism:||Facultatively anaerobic (because it kan can utilize NO3- as final electron acceptor in the absence of oxygen).|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||Burkholderia spp. do not ferment carbohydrates.|
|Virulence Factors:||Capsule, sekretionssystem av typ III och IV as well as adhesion proteins, fimbria and system for quorum sensing.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||About 100 species have been described within genus Burkholderia, which is related to genus Taylorella. The two species of genus Burkholderia, which have beebn included in VetBact, are very closely related.|
|Legislation:||In Sweden glanders is notifiable to the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Burkholderia mallei belongs to category B as a potential bioterrorism agent according to NIAID.|
|Comment:||Glanders is highly contagious, only a few organisms are needed and it is easily spread by aerosol.|
|New names of bacterial phyla|
The taxonomic category phylum was previously not regulated by the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), but now this has changed and it was decided to revise the names of bacterial phyla. All phyla must be written in italics (which has been done on VetBact also before) and have the ending -ota.Published 2023-03-01. Read more...
|The taxonomy of chlamydias|
Species within the family Chlamydiaceae were previously divided into two genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. However, the differences between these two genera were not that great and many research groups have not accepted this division. Therefore, the genus Chlamydophila has been returned to the genus Chlamydia and this change has now been incorporated in VetBactPublished 2023-03-15. Read more...