|Categories:||Causes hemolysis; primarily of interest in human medicin|
|Etymology:||Genus name: twisted (like a chain) coccus (coccus means a grain or a berry and referrs to any sperical microorganism)|
Species epithet: pus-producing
|Type Strain:||ATCC 12344 = CCUG 4207 and 12701 = NCTC 8198.|
|Macromorphology (smell):||Small (approximately 1 mm in diameter) transluscent colonies after incubation for 24 h at 37°C on blood agar. Give (clear) beta-hemolysis on blood agar.|
|Micromorphology:||Nonmotile cocci (0.5-1.0 µm in diameter) in short chains. Also occur in pairs|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G+|
|Other Enzymes:||Coagulase -, esculinase v, hippuricase -, urease -|
|Biochemical Tests:||Voges-Proskauer -|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||
|Spec. Char.:||Optimal growth temperature: 37°C.|
|Disease:||Tonsillitis and pharyngitis (strep throat), scarlet fever, impetigo, etc. in humans. May cause mastitis in cattle.
|Virulence Factors:||Capsule (composed of hyaluronic acid), invasins, toxins, etc.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||About 100 species have been described within the genus Streptococcus. Many species within the genus Enterococcus have earlier been classified as streptococci and, thus, they are closely related. S. pyogenes is closely related to S. canis.|
|Comment:||Belongs to Lancefield's group A streptcocci.
Some particularly aggresive strains of S. pyogenes are sometimes kalled "flesh eating bacteria".
Staphylococcus aureus is also causing impetigo in humans.