|| Paenibacillus larvae|
||Genus name: Almost a Bacillus sp.
Species epithet: from larvae.
|Significance:||American foulbrood is common in the United States, but also occurs in Sweden, Finland and other European countries. The disease can cause significant economic losses where it is prevalent.
|Old Species Name(s):||Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae och P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens har nu sammanförts till en art.|
||ATCC 9545 = CCUG 28515.|
||Produces mostly greyish-white colonies with diffuse edges. However, there are strains, which form orange pigmented colonies. Some of these (genotype ERIC 3) gives a clear hemolysis zone on blood agar.
||Spore forming and motile rods (0.5-0.8 x 2.5-5.0 µm), which have peritrichous flagella.
|Gram +/Gram -:||G+, but difficult to gram stain.
||Esculinase +, tryptophanase +, urease -
||Citrate -, has mixed acid fermentation (Voges-Proskauer +)
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:
Other carbohydrates: Adonitol -, galactose +.
||Honeybee (Apis mellifera)|
|Disease (Swedish):||Amerikansk yngelröta.
|Disease (English):||American foulbrood of honeybees.|
||Abnormally high number of dead larvae (even in closed cells). Dead larvae produce a brown viscous residue in the cell, which can be pulled out with a match to a long thread. These residues contain large amounts of bacterial spores and can have a foal smell.|
At least three strains have been sequenced and these strains have 0 to 1 circular plasmids.
|CP003355 ||04-310 (= DSM 25430) ||4 046 337 ||1c + 1c |
|16S rRNA Seq.:
|Acc-no||Strain||Number of NT||Operon|
|X60619 ||ATCC 9545T ||1425 ||8 |
|About 75 species and subspecies have been described within the genus Paenibacillus. Many of them were earlier regarded as members of the genus Bacillus.
||On suspicion of American foulbrood (AFB) in Sweden, a complaint is required to the bee inspector or the provincial government by Swedish law. AFB is included in OIE's A-list of major animal diseases.|
|Comment:||Compare Melisococcus plutonius, which causes European foulbrood.|
||No. 97, 128|
||Amerikansk yngelröta - biologi, diagnos och bekämpning|