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Species/Subspecies: Citrobacter freundii
Etymology: Genus name: citrate-utilizing rod (bacterium).
Species epithet: named after the bacteriologist A. Freund, who first observed that trimethylene glycol was a product of fermentation.
Significance:  [Of minor importance]   
Type Strain: ATCC 8090 = CCUG 418 = NCTC 9750.
Macromorphology (smell):
Citrobacter freundii Citrobacter freundii 
Medium-sized translucent to opaque colonies (2-4 mm in diameter) with glossy surface.
Micromorphology: Straight rods (1.0 x 2.0-6.0 µm), which usually are motile by means of peritrichous flagella.
Gram +/Gram -:
Gram staining of Citrobacter freundii.
Metabolism: Facultatively anaerobic. Can utilize citrate as the sole carbon source.
Other Enzymes: DNase -, esculinase -, ornithine decarboxylase -, tryptophanase v, urease v.
Biochemical Tests: Citrate (+), methyl red +, Voges-Proskauer -.
Fermentation of carbohydrates:
All strains ferment glucose under acid production and about 90% of them also under gas production. Sorbose phosphate +.
Spec. Char.:
Hosts: Is an environmental bacterium, which also can be isolated from many different species.
Disease (Swedish):Är en opportunist eller sekundärpatogen, som kan ge sårinfektioner. Hos människa kan C. freundii i sällsynta fall orsaka matförgiftning.
Disease (English):Is an opportunistic or secondary pathogen, which may cause wound infections. In humans, C. freundii in rare cases, cause food poisoning.
Clinical Picture:
16S rRNA Seq.:
Acc-noStrainNumber of NTOperon
AJ233408 (T) 1505  

Comment:Some strains can easily be confused with Salmonella spp. in routine diagnostics. Grows in the same way on BG XLD and purple agar.


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Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences