|Categories:||Causes hemolysis; spore forming; motile|
|Etymology:||Genus name: Almost a Bacillus sp.|
Species epithet: from larvae.
|Significance:||American foulbrood is common in the United States, but also occurs in Sweden, Finland and other European countries. The disease can cause significant economic losses where it is prevalent.
|Alternative Species Name(s):||Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae och P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens har nu sammanförts till en art.|
|Type Strain:||ATCC 9545 = CCUG 28515.|
|Macromorphology (smell):||Produces mostly greyish-white colonies with diffuse edges. However, there are strains, which form orange pigmented colonies. Some of these (genotype ERIC 3) gives a clear hemolysis zone on blood agar.|
||Spore forming and motile rods (0.5-0.8 x 2.5-5.0 µm), which have peritrichous flagella.|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G+, but difficult to gram stain.|
|Other Enzymes:||Esculinase +, tryptophanase +, urease -|
|Biochemical Tests:||Citrate -, has mixed acid fermentation (Voges-Proskauer +)|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||
Other carbohydrates: Adonitol -, galactose +.
|Disease:||American foulbrood of honeybees.
|Hosts:||Honeybee (Apis mellifera)|
|Clinical Picture:||Abnormally high number of dead larvae (even in closed cells). Dead larvae produce a brown viscous residue in the cell, which can be pulled out with a match to a long thread. These residues contain large amounts of bacterial spores and can have a foal smell.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||About 75 species and subspecies have been described within the genus Paenibacillus. Many of them were earlier regarded as members of the genus Bacillus.|
|Legislation:||On suspicion of American foulbrood (AFB) in Sweden, a complaint is required to the bee inspector or the provincial government by Swedish law. AFB is included in OIE's A-list of major animal diseases.|
|Comment:||Compare Melisococcus plutonius, which causes European foulbrood.|
|Reference(s):||No. 97, 128, 137|
|Link:||Amerikansk yngelröta - biologi, diagnos och bekämpning|
|The revised taxonomy of the mollicutes (mycoplasmas)|
About 2 years ago, the taxonomy of mycoplasmas was revised at VetBact, because a research group had proposed that 5 new genera should be included together with the genus Mycoplasma. This also had consequences for higher taxa within the phylum, which was then called Tenericutes. Now another group of researchers has suggested that the new names should be rejected.Published 2023-10-03. Read more...