|Categories:||Spore forming; motile|
|Etymology:||Genus name: a small spindle. |
Species epithet: named after the American bacteriologist F.G. Novy.
|Type Strain:||ATCC 17861 = NCTC 13029.|
||Form medium sized colonies (1-5 mm in diameter), which can easily spread as a contiuous film over the entire plate (the bacteria "swarm").|
|Micromorphology:||Large rods, which usually are motile. Produce oval spores, which are terminal or subterminal and may cause the cell to swell.|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G+|
|Other Enzymes:||Esculinase -, lecithinase (+), tryptophanase (+).|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||
|Disease:||Infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease)
|Virulence Factors:||Necrotizing α-toxin, β-toxin (lechitinase), γ-toxin (phopholipase C), δ-toxin (oxygen-labile hemolysin), ε-toxin (lipase), ζ-toxin (hemolysin), η toxin (tropomyosinase) and θ-toxin (lipase).|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||About 180 differens species have been descibed within genus Clostridium. C. novyi is very closely related (phylogenetically) to C. botulinum group III and C. haemolyticum.|
|Comment:||Two types of C. novyi, A and B, have been defined. Both type A and B produce α-toxin, but type A also produces γ-and ε-toxin. Some strains of type A also produces δ-toxin. Type B strains produce β-, ζ- and η-toxin. Some type B strains also produce θ-toxin.|
|New families introduced within the order Enterobacterales|
The order Enterobacterales (formerly called Enterobacteriales) previously consisted of bacteria with different properties and phylogenetically, these bacteria were far apart. In order for the taxonomy to be more in line with phylogeny, some of these bacteria have, therefore, been sorted into 6 new families.Published 2022-04-13. Read more...