|Show all biochemical tests|
Bacteria, which have aerobic respiration, often have cytochrome c and a cytochrome c oxidase. The presence of these components can in combination with other methods be used for typing. A commersial test, which contains an artificial electron acceptor (N, N, N', N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, see Fig. 1), is often used. This artificial electron acceptor change colour depending upon redox state. The substance is also referred to as a redox indicator and it can be oxidized by the oxidized form of cytochrome c. Cytochrome c oxidase is the last enzyme of the electron transport chain, where it normally reduces oxygen to water and pump protons to the outside according to the following net reaction:
Note that the oxidase reagent is not stable after that the ampoule has been opened. It may be used for a couple of hours, but eventually it will be oxidized by the oxygen in the air.
The oxidase test is used for identification of gram negative bacteria. For instance to identify members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, which are oxidase negative, except members of the genus Plesiomonas (oxidase positive). Members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, and the genera Aeromonas and Campylobacter are oxidase positive.
|Phage therapy for treatment of American foulbrood caused by Paenibacillus larvae infections in honey bees|
It has recently been shown that phage therapy can be used to treat and cure hives of honey bees, which are suffering from American foulbrood. Read more about this here or on our blog.Published 2018-05-17. Read more...