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Species/Subspecies: Clostridium perfringens
Etymology: Genus name: a small spindle.
Species epithet: breaking through, breaking in pieces.
Significance:  [Very important]   
Taxonomy:
PhylumClassOrderFamilyGenus
FirmicutesClostridiaClostridialesClostridiaceaeClostridium
Type Strain: ATCC 13124 = CCUG 1795 = NCTC 8237.
Macromorphology (smell):
Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens 
Form large translucent, flat and filamentous colonies (about 5 mm in diameter) with irregular edges. Fluoresces in red on blood agar in the presence of carbohydrates. Most strains give a double hemolysis zone on bovine blood agar.
Micromorphology: Large non-motile rods (0.6-2.4 x 1.3-19.0 µm). Form spores, but this is rarely seen. They are large oval and central or subterminal.
Gram +/Gram -:
Fig. 29:3. Gram staining of Clostridium perfringens. Note that the cells have not been evenly stained by the gram staining.
G+
Metabolism: Anaerobic (but not very strict).
Catalase/Oxidase:-/-
Other Enzymes: Esculinase v, lechithinase +, tryptophanase -.
Fermentation of carbohydrates:
D-glucoselactosemaltoseL-rhamnosesucrose
?++-+
L-arabinosecellobioseD-mannitolsalicintrehalose
-(-)--v
glycerolinulinraffinoseD-sorbitolstarch
?(-)v(-)v
Other carbohydrates: Fructose +, galactose (+), mannose +, ribose v
Spec. Char.: Optimal growth temperature: 43-47°C.
Special Media:
Clostridium perfringens 
Tryptose Sulfite Cycloserine agar (TSC agar) is used for isolation and enumeration of both vegetative cells and spores of C. perfringens in food and clinical samples.
Hosts: Chicken, pig, ruminants, horse, rabbit, dog, humans etc.
Disease (Swedish):Nekrotiserande enterit mm. Matförgiftning.
Disease (English):Necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. Food poisoning.
Clinical Picture:
Virulence Factors: Hemolysins (α-, δ-and θ-toxin), etc.
Genome Sequence:
Acc-noStrainSize (bp)Genome
NC_003366 13 3 031 430 1c + 1c 
Three strains have been sequenced and they have 0-3 circular plasmids.

16S rRNA Seq.:
Acc-noStrainNumber of NTOperon
AB075767 ATCC 13124T 1 460 10 

Taxonomy/phylogeny:
 Clostridium perfringens
About 180 differens species have been descibed within genus Clostridium. C. chauvoei C. perfringens belongs to the same phylogenetic group of clostridia as, among others, C. chauvoei and C. septicum.
Comment:C. perfingens is divided in different groups depending upon which enterotoxins that are produced. Type A produces α-toxin. Type B produces α-, β-and ε-toxin. Type C produces α-and β-toxin. Type D produces α-and ε-toxin. Type E produces α-and ι-toxin.
Reference(s): No. 8, 35, 33
Link: Clostridia.net
Updated:2017-05-10
 

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